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science research task

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science research task

Unread postAuthor: XxtriviumxX » Mon May 07, 2007 10:05 pm

im doing a research task for science during the next 3 weeks............this particular task is unguided so i can do whatever, does anyone have any ideas that i can use....E.G. at what velocity would a tennis ball shatter laminated glass ect.

im in australia so i cant make anything that would be considered dangerous.

i dont want answers just ideas :D
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Unread postAuthor: frankrede » Mon May 07, 2007 10:21 pm

How about taking a scientific look at something simple.
Take a basic principle that everyone knows and make it incredibly in depth and look at in a scientific way.
Such as, why different glasses break differently, how CRT moniters work, how light works, What exactly is fire, extracting DNA!(Easy)
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Current project: Afghanistan deployment
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Unread postAuthor: hi » Mon May 07, 2007 10:56 pm

why is water wet?
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"physics, gravity, and law enforcement are the only things that prevent me from operating at my full potential" - not sure, but i like the quote

you know you are not an engineer if you have to remind yourself "left loosy righty tighty"
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Unread postAuthor: jackssmirkingrevenge » Mon May 07, 2007 11:09 pm

how long is a piece of string?
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Unread postAuthor: shud_b_rite » Tue May 08, 2007 12:41 am

where are my P.E shorts?
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Airbeds... so many different uses
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Unread postAuthor: clide » Tue May 08, 2007 12:57 am

How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?
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Unread postAuthor: XxtriviumxX » Tue May 08, 2007 3:03 am

thank you frankrede for actually helping :)
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Unread postAuthor: paddo » Tue May 08, 2007 3:41 am

im not sure what level of school you are in so ill just give a suggestion.

maybe something with light. using different glass prisms to bend light and find out about different colors of light bending further than others (blue light bends more than red etc). just a suggestion because its fairly simple but still can be made quite interesting. we did some stuff about that in physics a while ago and it was pretty good.

good luck mate.
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Unread postAuthor: Hotwired » Tue May 08, 2007 4:20 am

How many kangaroos can you tie together by the tail without getting kicked to death :D

Three weeks, you'll be out of hospital in time to hand it in :)
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Unread postAuthor: jackssmirkingrevenge » Tue May 08, 2007 4:25 am

Or what happens when you cross a kangaroo with an elephant.

No wait, science has already established the complex consequences of this one - big holes all over Australia! :D
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Unread postAuthor: rna_duelers » Tue May 08, 2007 4:42 am

Whats the difference between the real world and the dream world?When you have something like a nightmare you can tell yourself it was only a dream or are you still dreaming?

Anywho....The hight different beer bottles shatter at and determine the strongest.
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Unread postAuthor: paddo » Tue May 08, 2007 4:45 am

rna_duelers wrote:Anywho....The hight different beer bottles shatter at and determine the strongest.



:lol: the distance different beer bottles will fly and determine the most aerodynamic haha. make a little wind tunnel even lol.
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Unread postAuthor: bboymatty » Tue May 08, 2007 5:30 am

one thing ive found very interesting is air vortex generation.

its things like the airzooka, u take a large cylindrical tube, with one end cut off and a smaller hole on the other, and u get a sheet of rubber and attach it to the big holed side, pull it out and let go, and it blows air out the smaller hole.

Doesnt sound interesting yet. But if u stand in front of it, about 5-10m away u can get a pretty decent whack of air in the face, or even cooler, u make a "green fire" (as i call them, which is just a fire with green foliage over it to make smoke) and suck the smoke into the tube, and then fire it out. It makes a awesome very defined smoke ring which can travel anywhere from 10-20m on a windless day.

anyways, google it if your interested
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Unread postAuthor: Pyro Ninja » Wed May 09, 2007 5:28 am

I am in the same Science class as XxtriviumxX we are in year nine.....
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Unread postAuthor: pyromanic13 » Wed May 09, 2007 1:41 pm

Test of the Impact Resistance of
Water Containing Various Additives

Alan Weiner
Guilford High School








Abstract



The described research tests the feasibility of the application of liquid solutions in body armor that would allow an increase in the mobility of the user when compared to traditional body armor. I tested the impact of a golf-ball projectile into 10 inches of clay that was immersed in various depths of either water alone or water containing various additives. I tested salt, flour and corn starch. I wanted to determine what I could do to water to increase its impact resistance. In the end a thixotropic (a material that gets hard when pressure is applied to it) mixture (in my example cornstarch and water) resisted impact the most.
















Problem

This experiment tested the feasibility of using liquids in the application of body armor to increase the mobility of the user without sacrificing protection when compared to traditional body armor. Potentially the application of liquid body armor could be used in the military, construction industry, or anywhere that mobility and protection is required, thus saving lives. I intend to prove that the application of liquids as a protective barrier is feasible.







Hypothesis

If the four water mixtures (bleached flour/water, corn starch/water, salt/water, water) are tested for resistance to impact, then the thixotropic mixture (corn starch and water) will perform the best (defined by resisting the impact with the least amount of cratering).



Materials:

- 5 gal buckets (5)
- water source
- two-liter graduated cylinder
- 4540 grams bleached flour (Stop and Shop brand, Guilford, CT)
- 4540 grams corn starch (Stop and Shop brand)
- 2936 grams salt (Stop and Shop brand)
- 50 pounds of Laguna white clay (Laguna Clay Company, CA)
- 77” high wooden platform
- 3 Cinder blocks
- Pneumatic spud cannon
 chamber = 1573 inches
 valve used was a 1 inch modified Orbit Water Master sprinkler valve
 barrel = 58 inch schedule 21 PVC pipe
- 2 x 4 plank (2)
- 13 golf balls
- 13 coffee stirrers
- ruler
- bike pump and/or air compressor
- wire tool (used to cut the clay)
- Sharpie pen
- pencil
- electric drill and wall-paste liquid mixing attachment for drill


Procedure

1) Preparation of firing area:
- Lay the two planks parallel to each other about 6” apart over the 77” high plat form.
- Lay all three cinder blocks on the platform sides of the planks
- With barrel off, set the spud gun off the platform, aiming down supported by the two planks.
- Set up the air compressor so that the spud gun can be pressurized without the necessity of taking the gun off its platform.

2) Mixing of test solutions:
- Take one of the 5 gal buckets, fill it with 8000 ml water, 2936 g salt (this is the maximum amount of salt that can be dissolved into the given amount of water)
- Take a second 5 gal bucket, fill with 2500 ml water, dissolve into the water 4540 g corn starch
- Work the water and corn starch until they are of uniform consistency.
- Take a third 5 gal buckets, fill it with 3500ml water, 4540 grams flour.
- Work until uniform consistency is established. Liquid mixer made for electric drills is optional (I used one, and it helped a lot)
- Take the fourth 5 gal bucket and fill ¾ with water.
- Note; Let all solutions cool to room temperature.

3) Preparation of clay:
- Cut the 25 lbs of clay into blocks 10” by 6” by 6” (approximately 16 lbs) each.

4) Testing:
- Put one block of clay into a center of a 5 gal bucket, on the 6” by 6” surface.
- Using a ruler mark points, 1”, 3”, and 5” above the top of the clay slab.
- Pour one of the liquids into the bucket until it fills the bucket up to the highest mark.

- Wearing face protection, pressurize the spud gun to 30psi
- Load golf ball into barrel and attach to gun

- Take the bucket to the spud gun, line up the center of the barrel with the center of the bucket.
- With gun primed, quickly grab the valve’s trigger, move to a safe spot at least 10 feet away, and fire.
- Quickly pour water + additive mixture back into its original bucket.
- Take clay slab out.
- From the bottom of the clay slab, poke pencil through the clay, pushing the golf ball out the open end.
- Take a coffee stirrer, put one end at the bottom of the crater and mark on the stirrer with a pencil how deep the crater is from the bottom of the crater to the top of the clay slab.
- Measure the mark on the coffee stirrer with a ruler

- Record depth
- Repeat with depths 1”, and 3”
- Repeat with the three other substances

6) Testing the penetration depth, without water (just air as a protection):
- Cut a block of clay 15” by 6” by 6”
- Put block of clay into center of the fifth, 5 gal bucket, on the 6” by 6” surface
- Wearing a face mask pressurize the spud gun to 30 psi
- Load golf ball into barrel and attach to gun
- Take the bucket to the spud gun, line up the center of the barrel with the center of the bucket.
- With gun primed, quickly grab the valves trigger, move to safe spot, and fire.
- Take clay slab out.
- From the bottom of the clay slab, poke pencil through the clay, pushing the golf ball out.
- Take coffee stirrer, put one end at the bottom of the crater and mark with a pencil how deep the crater is.
- Measure coffee stirrer mark with ruler
- Record depth


Factors controlled

- Impact velocity was controlled through having the same amount of air pressure propelling the golf ball each time.

- Impact velocity was also controlled through the application of a fast opening valve (1 inch modified Orbit Water Master sprinkler valve)

- Hardening of clay (by temperature) was controlled by maintaining both the clay and liquid substances at room temperature. All clay was the same kind and from the same place.

- Projectile to clay resistance was held constant though the use of identical, mass produced, golf balls, a new one for each shot.

Independent variable

- Various depths (1”, 3” and 6” above the clay surface) of flour/water mix, corn starch/water mix, salt/water mix.

Dependant variable
- Crater depth


Controls:

- Air

- Water without any additives





The Spud Gun Spec and Muzzle Velocity. This shows the specifications for the spud gun that was used in the experiments (from: http://www.thehalls-in-bfe.com/GGDT/).


Experimental Data:










Discussion

My research supports the concepts other places such as MIT, and the military were developing. My research supports my hypothesis that liquid substances can effectively be used as armor without giving up mobility/flexibility. The salt/water solution, which was chosen to illustrate what making the water denser would do, contradicted accepted concepts by allowing greater penetration as compared to plain water. I say the salt/water mixture contradicted accepted concepts because usually someone would think in similar terms to this: what is harder to push your hand through, sand or Jello?


Validity

I believe the validity of my data is accurate. Impact velocity was controlled through having the same amount of air pressure propelling the golf ball each time. Impact velocity was also controlled through the application of a fast opening valve (the 1 inch modified Orbit Water Master Sprinkler valve). Hardening of clay (by temperature) was controlled by maintaining both the clay and liquid substances at room temperature. Projectile to clay resistance was held constant though the use of identical, mass produced golf balls. I used a new golf ball for each shot.


Improvements

One variable not held constant was the distance between the barrels end to the surface of the liquid substance. This varied because the barrel was held constant so that when the depths of the liquid substances changed from 1 inch to 6 inches, there was a 5 inch difference in the barrel to liquid substance distance. However I don’t believe this made a noticeable difference, as the amount of energy lost due to 5” of air resistance (at most) is very minuscule. I also could have taken multiple shots for each depth to increase the accuracy, although I found that the water plus additives did maintain their slopes closely.



Conclusion
Liquid armor is worth researching, as the concept is proven valid in this experiment. The data illustrates that the thixotropic material increases the water’s resistance to impact greatly (if I were to put it in a percent it would be misleading). At a 1 inch (2.54 mm) deep solution, water penetration was 8.8 cm whereas the corn starch mixture had a penetration of less than half of that (4.1 cm). With the 7.62 mm deep solutions, water slightly improved at 7.3 cm, a 1.5 cm improvement. At the same depth the thixotropic solution went to zero penetration. That means that at less than 7.62 mm cornstarch/water penetration was zero. The flour solution was an improvement upon water alone but is not an avenue worth looking into. Surprisingly the salt/water solution performed worst than water alone.

Final thoughts
This experiment proved that liquid armor is an option that should be further researched. I do not have access to the exotic/unfamiliar chemicals/materials that a specialized scientist might, but seeing what I have done with only house hold materials I can only imagine that there are thixotropic substances that I don’t know about, that can resist much higher impacts.



Literature Report

(Attached)
Figure Legends



Experimental Materials
• 1-4, Golf ball and golf ball holder at the top of barrel
• 5-11, Measuring chamber volume
• 12-17, Chamber dimensions, barrel and sprinkler valve




Experimental Set-up
• 1-6, Setting up the spud-gun set-up
• 7, Blocks of clay
• 8-9, Shot barrel (and clay in bucket)
• 10-12, penetration of clay through air, air crater
• 13-17, Measuring water craters at various water depths
• 18-19, Mixing corn starch solutions
• 20, 1 inch of water + corn starch above clay
• 21, 3 inch water + salt crater
• 22-25, water + flour experiment



Golf ball impact into clay through air













yeah... non of the pics are there...(graphs and data either)
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